Classification: Precision and Recall

In the realms of Data Science you’ll encounter sooner or the later the terms “Precision” and “Recall”. But what do they mean?


Living together with little kids You very often run into classification issues:

My daughter really likes dogs, so seeing a dog is something positive. When she sees a normal dog e.g. a Labrador and proclaims: “Look, there is a dog!”

That’s a True Positive (TP) Continue reading “Classification: Precision and Recall”

Lesson 4: Decision Trees

from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
clf = DecisionTreeClassifier(min_samples_split=40), labels_train)

UD120 – Intro to Machine Learning

One part of my bucket list for 2018 was finishing the Udacity Course UD120: Intro to Machine Learning.

the host of this course are Sebastian Thrun, ex-google-X and founder of Udacity and Katie Malone, creator of the Linear digressions podcast.

The course consists of 17 lessons. Every lesson has a couple of hours of video and lots and lots of quizzes in it.

  • [x] Lesson 1: Only introduction 🙂
  • [x] Lesson 2: Naive Bayes
  • [x] Lesson 3: Support Vector Machines
  • [x] Lesson 4: Decision Trees
  • [x] Lesson 5: Choose your own algorithm
  • [ ] Lesson 6: Datasets and questions
  • [ ] Lesson 7: Regression
  • Lesson 8: Outliers
  • Lesson 9: Clustering
  • Lesson 10: Feature Scaling
  • Lesson 11: Text Learning
  • Lesson 12: Feature Selection
  • Lesson 13: PCA
  • Lesson 14: Validation
  • Lesson 15: Evaluation Metrics
  • Lesson 16: Tying it all together
  • Lesson 17: Final project

The Normal Distribution

Diving deeper into data science I started to brush up my knowledge about math especially statistics.

The Mother of all Distributions

The normal distribution was formulated by Carl Friedrich Gauß in 18XX and can be implemented in Python like the following :

def normal_distribution(x, mu=0, sigma=1):
    sqrt_two_pi = math.sqrt(2*math.pi)
    return math.exp(-(x-mu)**2 / 2 / sigma**2) / sqrt_two_pi * sigma

Data Science: Cross-Validation

For validating your model You need to split your data into a training and a test data set.

More training data means a better model, more test data means better validation.

But because the amount of data to train/test the model is limited you have to decide in which ratio of training vs test data you want to split your data.

import numpy as np
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn import datasets
from sklearn import svm

iris = datasets.load_iris(),

Sample a training set while holding out 40% of the data for testing:

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(,, test_size=0.4, random_state=0)
from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score
clf = svm.SVC(kernel='linear', C=1)
scores = cross_val_score(clf,,, cv=5)

Five Minutes with Ingo: Cross Validation